The vessels which characterize this group of ceramics are small juglets and bowls, brown-gray in color, decorated with geometric designs, and made of punctures filled with white chalk.Carol A. Redmount, Ph.D. (University of Chicago, 1989)
Associate Professor Near Eastern Studies Department
Curator of Egyptian Archaeology, P. A. Hearst Museum of Anthropology
Principal Investigator and Director, UC Berkeley El-Hibeh Project, Egypt
Egyptian Archaeology, Archaeology of the Eastern Levant, Ancient Ceramics email@example.com
"Hyksos Pottery from Tell el-Maskhuta," Bulletin de Liaison du Groupe International D'Etude de la Ceramique Egyptienne 17, 1993
"Pots and Peoples in the Egyptian Delta: Tell el-Maskhuta and the Hyskos," Journal of Mediterranean Archaeology 8, 1995
How would any 'experts' determine who made ceramics, houses, tools or any thing else thousands of years ago?
015a If ONLY one culture lived in a land area, it would be probable that some one in that culture created the object.
015b IF multiple cultures lived in that land area there would be only two ways to determine which culture probably created the objects.
015c The technology to create that object did not exist when group a lived in that area or
015d The object has ancient text which identifies which culture created those objects.
People have migrated to other lands since the beginning of history.
Genesis 12:10 ... Abram went into Egypt ..
Genesis 16:3 And Sarai took Hagar the Egyptian (Sarah Chaldean / Hagar an Egyptian now living in Canaan)
Genesis 21:21 And he dwelt in the wilderness of Paran. Ishmael moved to Saudi Arabia)
Genesis 26:1 ... Isaac went unto Abimelech king of the Philistines unto Gerar.
ISRAELITES WHO MOVED BACK TO EGYPT
CENTURIES AFTER THE EXODUS
1 Kings 11:40 ... Jeroboam fled into Egypt
2 Kings 23:34 And Pharaohnechoh... moved to Egypt, and died there.
2 Kings 25:26 All the Israelites not taken in captivity migrated to Egypt: for they were afraid of the Chaldees
There is nothing in ancient Egyptian text that identifies any such people as Israelites but there are records of outsiders who came to Egypt to trade.
015e How could you determine if any object originated in Egypt or
015f If objects made outside of Egypt originally was produced in Egypt?
Where do people get their ideas on designs? Today we are plastered by TV, magazines, catalogs, junk mail .. it is kind of hard to have an original thought.
Throwing out royalty, traveling merchants, the guys who sailed on the Nile or those who moved from home to work on the pyramids, what can we imagine city people / farmers did in the way of travel?
In ancient times (wild guess) I would speculate that most people never traveled more than 25 miles from the place where they were born.
People who made ceramics got their ideas from local people where they grew up.
NO MASS PRODUCTION
NO QUALITY CONTROL
NO PATTERS / NO BLUE PRINTS
Ceramics were hand made. Even the maker of one ceramic could not make another ceramic exactly like another one.
The only similar pieces I have seen are those created for royalty or the priest. They have lots of similarities in design.
015f As for ceramic ware that is found in the dwellings of 'Hyksos', the array of different construction and designs are as diverse as your imagination. There is NO set pattern or construction, they are free hand, each created by the imagination and talent of it's particular maker.
015g Ceramics are made of clay, elements taken out of the ground. The ceramics branded as 'Hyksos' are not made of material imported from outside of Egypt, they are made of the very same stuff that all Egyptian ceramics are made of.
015h The ONLY reason why 'archeologist' call ceramics found in that area 'Hyksos' is based on the 'Jewish mythology' that a people called Hyksos ruled that area (100 to 500 years). On this myth ONLY the cracked pots are labeled Hyksos... but wait weren't there Egyptians there for centuries before and centuries after the mythical Hyksos?
If it were not for the European myth about the mythical Josephus, the ceramics there would be attributed to Egyptians.
015i If any people can create any kind of pottery, any other people can copy it. In the mythical account of the Hyksos, Ahmose was the pharaoh who drove them out. After they were 'driven out' that area did not become a 1000-4000 area of ruins, the returning Egyptians would have moved in their pads.
It would be impossible to determine who made what pot. Even if they had a precise age dating machine, the 'experts' can't even agree on when the mythical Hyksos were there or how many centuries they hung out there.
015j Here would be a fun game to play.
* Have some one take some ancient pottery found in Turkey and place it in the "Hyksos' area.
* Take some ceramics found (identified as Hyksos) and put it in an archeology dig in Iraq.
Watch the fun of the 'archeology experts'.